Historia Polski w syntezach historiografii rosyjskiej XIX - początek XX w. Abstract dissertations Doctors hab. of History by specialty historiography, source study and methods of historical

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research  Belarusian State University UDC 930.1 Kruczkowski Tadeusz Tadeuszewicz HISTORY OF POLAND IN CONCEPTS RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY XIX - THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY https://www.academia.edu/43076838/  20150619 fałszywe pandemie WHO STRONA 33. HERODY Herodenspiel von Stefan Kosiewski M27 SOWA M72   PDF: https://issuu.com/kulturzentrum/docs/widerstand_m27_lusterko_prawde_ci_powie_pdo411_lec/33

2020-05-17

Minsk, 2018  The scientific work was performed at the Belarusian State University.

Scientific Advisor - Alexander Nechukhrin,

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,

Head of the Department of General and Slavic

History of UO "Grodno State

University named after I. Kupala.

Official opponents: Menkovsky Vyacheslav Ivanovich,

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,

Professor, Department of Russian History

Belarusian State University;

Mezga Nikolay Nikolaevich,

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,

Dean of the Faculty of History UO "Gomel State

University named after F. Scorins ";

Ioffe Emanuel Grigorievich,

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,

Professor, Department of Political Science and Law UO "Belarusian State

Pedagogical University named after M. Tanka.

"Opposing organization –UO “Brest State

University named after A.S. Pushkin

"The defense will take place on March 29, 2018 at 14.00 at a meeting of the dissertation protection councilD 02.01.05 at the Belarusian State University at the address: Minsk, st. Leningradskaya, 8 (building of theFaculty of Law), aud. 407

.Telephone of the Scientific Secretary: (+37517) 209-57-09.

The dissertation can be found in the Fundamental Library of the Belarusian State University.

Abstract sent " " February 2018

Scientific Secretary dissertation councilDoctor of Historical Sciences

Professor A.A. Guzhalovsky

INTRODUCTION

For a long historical time, Poland has acted for Russia not only as a major military-political and civilizational rival, but also as a center of transmission of Western influence. Largely through the Russia – Poland dichotomy, the attitude in Russia to Western civilization has long been determined. All this complex of Russian-Polish problems and the need to search for a mutually acceptable model of coexistence of the two largest Slavic peoples who adopted various civilizational models of development stimulated Russian and Polish historical thought, prompting to search in the past for the causes and sources of such complex relations.

The Polish question (widely understood as a historical, cultural and political science component) played a significant role in the political and social life of Russia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. No less important than the Polish question for Russia was the complex of stereotypes that had settled in society and historiography about the history of Poland and Russian-Polish relations. In liberal historiosophical concepts of Russian historiography (V.O. Klyuchevsky, N.I. Kareev), the special place of Poles in the history of Russia was explained mainly by rational factors: political, geostrategic, and historical reasons. In a conservative historiosophy (S.M. Soloviev approached this point of view) - reasons of a providential-religious nature. In the conservative historiography of the Slavophile sense, it even acquired a mystical coloring. I.P. Filevich argued that the long-standing hostility between Poland and Russia was reflected in the psyche of the Russian people. The emotional position of the historian of the Slavophile orientation is close in its essential expression to the rational thesis of the Westerner V.O. Klyuchevskogo that the Poles occupied a special place in Russian history: it was not for nothing that they and the Tatars remained in the minds of the Russians the eternal enemies of their statehood. The special place and importance of Poland in the history of Russia, the influence of the Polish question on the socio-political situation in Russia of the studied period is emphasized in modern Russian, Polish and Belarusian socio-historical thought. The complex of Russian-Polish problems, as modern reality shows, has not lost either political or scientific relevance in Russia and Poland at the beginning of the 21st century.

The period of the XIX - beginning of the XX centuries represents the various stages of the historical development of Russia as a whole, as well as historical science. The author presents historical polonistics in two main stages. The first is the first half of the 19th century. The second - the second half of the XIX century - the beginning of the XX century. The second stage emphasizes the time from the beginning of the 80s of the XIX century, when liberal polonistics is being formed and significantly strengthened, which, however, could not abandon a number of conservative-patriotic ideas.

Historical polonistics in Russian historiography of the XIX - early XX centuries is considered in the context of several research areas: socio-political situation; own development of historiography, its theoretical and methodological foundations and research issues, primarily in connection with Polish topics; determining the place and role of the history of Poland in the most famous conceptual models of Russian history (N.M. Karamzin, S.M. Soloviev, V.O. Klyuchevsky) and world history (N.I. Kareev). The syntheses of these scientists are the main ones, since they had the greatest impact in theoretical, methodological and historiographical terms on the development of Russian historical science. In this connection, the predominant subject of research is not the entire Russian historical polonistics of the period under study, but that part of it that can be attributed to the Russian proper. In connection with this author, the term “Russian” science is used as a term in the study period identical to the concept of “Great Russian” in contrast to Russian science, which brought together historians of various peoples of the empire, including Belarusians and Ukrainians. In modern Russian polonistics, these terms “Ruski” and “Russian” in relation to the period under consideration often appear as synonyms (L. M. Arzhakova, L. E. Gorizontov, etc.). At the same time, generally accepted concepts are used in relation to the category of statehood: Russia , Russian Empire, Russian-Polish relations, etc.

To convey the specifics of the assessment approaches of Russian science of the period under consideration, the names of the territories used in pre-revolutionary historiography are used. Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania after the Union of Krev, the Commonwealth was defined in it as "Polish-Lithuanian statehood" or most often as "Poland". The territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine were understood as “West Russian lands” or “Western Russia”. To characterize the Russian-Polish confrontation, the modern categories of “civilization” and “civilizational confrontation” are used, although these concepts were rarely used in Russian science at that time, only N.I. Kareev and partly V.O. Klyuchevsky was replaced by the terms “struggle of the worlds”, “folk elements” or “cultural-historical types”. The relevance of the research topic is also determined by its insufficient study. In historical science, there is no generalizing work on the topic of this study. Belarusian historical science needs to formulate its own view on the main provisions of Russian historiography regarding the history of Poland and especially the Russian-Polish confrontation on the territory of modern Belarus.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WORK

Communication of work with scientific programs (projects), topics

The topic of the dissertation is related to the scientific specialization of the Department of General and Slavic History of the Educational Institution “Yanka Kupala Grodno State University” - source study, historiography, and historical research methods. The dissertation was the head of research work No. GR 20066865 “The history of Belarus and Belarusian-Polish relations in Polish historical public thought in the XIX – XX centuries.” in the period 03.03.2006–31.12.2010; in addition, the research materials were used in the development of the State Research Institute for Economics and Humanitarian Development of the Belarusian Society for 2016–2020. Scientific research work 1.1.02 “Historiography of Belarus (XII – XX centuries): socio-economic aspect”.

The purpose and objectives of the study

The relevance of the topic, the insufficient degree of knowledge of the problems of historical polonistics in Russian historical science determined the purpose of the dissertation research: to show in the main historiosophical concepts of Russian historiography of the XIX - early XX centuries the special place and role of Poland in the history of Russia as its civilizational rival.

For the implementation of this goal, the following tasks were identified:

1) present the socio-political conditions and theoretical and methodological foundations of the development of historical polonistics in Russia XIX - early XX centuries;

2) to identify the main topics and key problems of the history of Poland in the interpretation of conservative and liberal historiography of the first half of the XIX century;

3) determine the place and role of the historical past of Poland and the Polish question in the historiosophical concept of the history of Russia N.M. Karamzin;4) to demonstrate the main topics and key problems of the history of Poland in the interpretation of conservative, liberal and populist historiography of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries;

5) to reveal the significance of the history of Poland for the historical past of Russia in the historical concept of S.M. Soloviev;

6) to characterize the role of Poland in the history of Russia according to the historical concept of V.O. Klyuchevsky;

7) show the place and importance of Poland in the historiosophical concept of world history N.I. Kareeva;

8) to highlight the general features and characteristics of historical polonistics in Russian historiography of various trends in the study period.

The object of the study is Russian history of the period under review. The subject of the research is Russian historical polonistics of the 19th - early 20th centuries, presented, first of all, in the basic concepts of Russian historical science (N.M. Karamzin, S.M. Soloviev, V.O. Klyuchevsky, N.I. Kareev).

Chronological framework of the study: XIX - early XX centuries.

Scientific novelty

The scientific novelty of the dissertation research lies in the fact that for the first time in historical science the place, significance and role of Poland in the basic historiosophical concepts of Russian historiography of the 19th - early 20th centuries, as well as in Russian historical science as a whole, are presented. The basic concepts, conclusions, characteristic features and features of Russian historical polonistics are revealed. The historical knowledge about the state and development of Russian historical polonistics of the period under study has been expanded.

 The historical role and significance of Poland in the history of Russia was defined in Russian historiography as the most important political, military, as well as civilizational rival for a long time of neighborly coexistence and at the same time as a center of transmission of Western influence. There are two main conceptual approaches: liberal, Westernist orientation and conservative, mainly Slavophile orientation. The general evaluative approaches of Russian science of the studied period to historical polonistics were expressed in its fundamental (fundamental) ideas, of a conservative and Slavophile character, most often of an anti-Western sense.

 It is concluded that in the basic concepts of Russian science, regardless of its direction, the history of Poland received identically close estimated characteristics. Slavophil historiosophy and the refraction of the conservative theory of “official nationality” in the work of N.G. Ustryalova and M.P. Pogodina, and then "West Russianism" M.O. Koyalovich (as a regional Slavophil variant) and conservative conservatism D.I. Ilovaisky advocate in the field of historical polonistics as phenomena of the same order. The provision on the refusal of liberal historiography from the 80s of the nineteenth century on its fundamental foundations is not confirmed by historiographic material. The liberal polonistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries examined key moments in the history of Poland and Russian-Polish relations in the main evaluative positions, following the traditions of a conservative and Slavophile trend.

To a certain extent, the work is complex and interdisciplinary in nature, since consideration of the place and role of the history of Poland in the basic concepts of Russian historiography of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and showing the general and special features of Russian polonistics are combined with an analysis of the socio-political changes that have taken place in Russia, as well as those theoretical and methodological changes that took place in Russian polonistics.

 As an additional factor of influence on the nature of historical polonistics, the literary and philosophical views of a number of Russian thinkers of the period under study are noted. This made it possible to see the following feature of Russian historical polonistics: its dependence on prevailing political, cultural and mental stereotypes, expressed in the so-called fundamental (basic) ideas. As a result of this, an increase in knowledge about the history of Poland during the study period did not significantly affect its basic, general ideas. The author reveals this position by the example of the historical polonistics of liberal historiography (S.M. Soloviev, V.O. Klyuchevsky, N.I. Kareev).

 It is determined that in the field of Russian historical polonistics N.M. Karamzin acted as the pioneer of the national-patriotic approach to the history of Poland and in determining the essence of the Polish question. CM. Soloviev, the largest Russian liberal historian of the second half of the nineteenth century in the field of historical Russian polonistics, found himself completely in the evaluative positions of the conservative and Slavophil directions. In turn, the most famous liberal historians of the late nineteenth - early twentieth centuries - V.O. Klyuchevsky, N.I. Kareev preserved in their historiosophical syntheses the history of Russia and world history with respect to the key moments of the history of Poland and Russian-Polish relations a number of fundamental provisions of the conservative-Slavophil direction.

 Defense Provisions

1. The development of Russian polonistics during the 19th - early 20th centuries was closely interrelated with the perception of the Polish question (widely understood as a historiosophical, cultural and political science component) and the history of Poland by Russian society. In liberal historiosophical concepts (V.O. Klyuchevsky, N.I. Kareev), the special place of Poles in the history of Russia was explained mainly by rational factors: political-geostrategic, historical. In conservative historiosophy (SM Solovyov approached it in the field of historical polonistics) - reasons of a providential-religious nature. On the part of the Russian government, there was a political “Order”, which needs to create a historical image of Poland, which serves as a historical and ideological justification of Russian policy towards Poland (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).

For these reasons, in Russian historiosophical thought of the period under study, the problems of Russian-Polish relations and the history of Poland were a controversial and complex problem, caused not only by the historiosophical provisions of previous Russian historiography and Western European science, but also by political, religious and ideological factors and stereotypes.

2. Russian historical polonistics as a whole was influenced by conservative and Slavophil ideas. The main ones were: the provision on the centuries-old civilizational confrontation between Poland and Russia, which was supposed to end with the victory of the latter; a description of the western historical path of Poland as a misfortune to the Slavic world; the perception of Poland as an outcast of the Slavic world, and the Commonwealth as a unique socio-political, but non-viable phenomenon; the thesis of the West Russian lands as part of a united Orthodox Russia and the impossibility of their integration with Poland as part of the Commonwealth. General evaluative approaches of Russian historiography of the studied period to historical polonistics are considered in modern science as its fundamental ideas. The provision on the refusal of Russian liberal historiography from the 1880s of the 19th century on the fundamental foundations of its predecessors is not entirely accurate.

 Due to these ideas, Russian-Polish relations could only be regarded as a struggle of civilizations or even a religious war. This was reflected even in liberal pro-Western concepts. IN. Klyuchevsky and N.I. Kareev considered this civilizational confrontation, based on a concrete historical assessment and the socio-political structure of the Commonwealth and Russia of the pre-Petrine period, as western (Poland) and eastern (Muscovy) civilizations.

 3. For a general description of Russian historical science of the period under study (historical polonistics even more), it is necessary to highlight the most important problem in relation to the development model of Russia: the choice of the West or the East. In this definition of socio-historical thought of choosing a model for the development of Russia, there are a number of most important, significant problems, including the Polish one.

There were two main conceptual approaches to the problem of Russia's civilizational choice in Russian science of the studied period: liberal, pro-Western orientation, and conservative, mainly Slavophil orientation. In the first half of the 19th century, conservative Slavophile trend, and in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries - a liberal-Westernist trend.

These tendencies are especially noticeable and applicable in historical polonistics: in the first half of the 19th century, the conservative and Slavophilic trends also dominated, and in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the liberal-Westernist trend only intensified significantly. It seems important that in Russian historical polonistics and in the second half of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries, unlike Russian historiography as a whole, the liberal-Westernist trend did not become the leading one. The historians of the conservative and Slavophile trend condemned the Western civilizational choice of Russia and Poland, considering it fatal for Poland. A similar point of view regarding Poland was held by the most prominent liberal historian of Russia in the second half of the 19th century - S.M. Soloviev, who, however, approved of Russia's later entry into the Western world. In the concepts of V.O. Klyuchevsky and N.I. Kareeva did not condemn the Western choice of the Poles, but emphasized the position that Poland did not have the full features of Western European civilization.

4. N.M. Karamzin became the most famous creator of the conceptual version of the history of Russia in the first half of the 19th century, in which Polish issues occupied a significant place. The scientist acted as a pioneer in determining the place and role of the history of Poland in the history of Russia. The transition of the scientist from pro-Western cosmopolitan ideas to conservative positions based on the ideas of the great power of Russia predetermined his basic assessments of the history of Poland. He acted as the initiator of the national-patriotic approach to the history of Poland and in characterizing the essence of the Polish question. The scientist reduced the essence of the Polish question to two main points: the impossibility of restoring independent Poland without prejudice to Russian great power, and Russia's belonging to the Orthodox territories of the Commonwealth.

 The influence of the Karamzin concept affected historical polonistics, as well as the creative heritage of the most famous “rulers of thoughts” of the next generation of Russian society (N. G. Ustryalov, M. N. Pogodin, A. S. Pushkin, N. A. Poleva and Slavophiles).

The scientist in his presentation of the history of Russia did not pay much attention to the medieval history of Poland. Since the time of Ivan the Terrible, the Russian-Polish confrontation, in the interpretation of the historian, has become not only a period of their civilizational struggle, but also a religious war. In assessing the causes of the fall of Poland, he combined the provisions on the depravity of the gentry system and on the shortcomings of the Polish national character. Across Comparison of the historical path of Russia and Poland, the historian presented special and characteristic features of the Russian historical process. 5. In the historical works of S.М. Solovyov, on the basis of positivistic theoretical and methodological approaches, formed a new look at the history of Russia and the world historical process. However, the revision of previous concepts did not affect the researcher's historical polonistics.

 This is due to the socio-political views of S. M. Solovyov (a peculiar combination of the ideas of a Russian statesman and a Westerner liberal with a number of Slavophile ideas), as well as his historiosophical concept (the role of the state principle and the idea of the antagonistic historical missions of Russia and Poland and based on this doom of their inevitable confrontation).

CM. Soloviev showed the general and distinctive sides of the historical fate of Russia and Poland. Poland’s betrayal of its historical mission, according to him, led to Polish eastward expansion from the fourteenth century. The historian saw the reasons for the rivalry between the Polish-Lithuanian state and Moscow in the period of the XV – XVII centuries in the struggle for the West Russian lands, manifested in the religious sphere. Special attention S.M. Solovyov gave an assessment of the gentry structure of the Polish-Lithuanian state, which he evaluated extremely negatively. Since the Time of Troubles S.M. Soloviev, as well as N.M. Karamzin, the confrontation between Russia and Poland was seen as a national-religious war. At the same time S.M. Solovyov became one of the few Russian historians to recognize Polish civilizational influence on Russia (Muscovy) and Western Russian lands (modern territories of Belarus and Ukraine), but he did not focus this influence on political ideas. The participation of Russia in the sections of the Commonwealth was considered by scientists as a policy of gathering Russian lands. CM. Soloviev mainly supported the opinion of the Russian conservative tradition about the main reasons for the fall of Poland: the gentry public system and the Polish national character.

 6. Describing the place and role of the history of Poland in the historiosophical concept of the history of Russia V.O. Klyuchevsky, one should proceed from the fact that he paid her much less attention than his famous predecessors. IN. Klyuchevsky attached great importance in the rivalry between Russia and Poland to the confessional factor, although somewhat less than his predecessors. The scientist admitted assessments of a Slavophil nature with respect to the history of Poland, as well as Russia: he assessed the position of the city and the peasantry of the Russian lands ON from these positions, did not accept the idea of the possibility of preserving Western Russian lands (Belarusian and Ukrainian) as part of the Commonwealth, or of their independent existence. Sections The speeches of the Commonwealth were interpreted by scientists mainly in line with the traditional for Russian science, although he criticized the Polish policy of Catherine II for the way the sections were implemented.

 For the first time in Russian science, Klyuchevsky recognized the special significance of Polish civilizational influence on Russia and the West Russian lands (modern Belarusian and Ukrainian lands). He, unlike most of his contemporaries, considered it possible to create an estate of Polish-Lithuanian-Russian gentry with the same class rights regardless of ethnic and religious affiliation and position, which was so dramatically different from the class rights of the Moscow nobility. Before the Time of Troubles, Moscow, even in comparison with Poland, seemed to scientists as a state resembling a type of eastern despotism. The greatest influence of Polish examples of the social and political system on the state thought and practice of Moscow, the scientist recognized during the Time of Troubles. It regarded Catholic Poland as the main mediator of the transfer in the Polish gentry processing of Western culture to Russia.

7. N.I. Kareev was one of the pioneers of the liberal tradition in Russian science in the interpretation of a number of key problems of Polish history. The history of Poland was considered by scientists primarily in its historiosophical model of Western European civilization, with the allocation in it of the place and role of Russia (Muscovy before Peter I) and Poland. The historian referred Poland to a peculiar part of Western civilization, standing at the junction of the West and East of Europe. N.I. Kareev presented the historical image of Poland, not typical of modern Russian science, as a country of advanced Western culture, religious tolerance (until the victory of the counter-reformation), contrasting it with Muscovy: a country with almost barbaric, Asian foundations. Based on this, the scientist explained the peculiarities of the history of Poland: the confrontation with the German world as a geopolitical struggle, and in the east - as a civilizational "struggle of Polish and Russian ideas."

The main reasons for the fall of the Commonwealth, quite in line with the Russian historiographic tradition, N.I. Kareev considered internal socio-political reasons, although the presentation of the material and the questions posed to scientists about the possible successful prospects for the implementation of Polish reforms in the second half of the 17th century make it possible to see the external factor prevailing. Scientists did not assess Russia as the culprit in the sections of the Commonwealth.

N.I. Kareev, in interpreting a number of key moments in the history of Poland, was influenced by Slavophil ideas: he supported the history of the Orthodox lands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on the issue of Russian-Polish fundamental ideas of Russian historical polonistics, considered mainly in line with the conservative-nationalist tradition. The scientist agreed with the provision on the predetermination of the death of the Polish-Lithuanian state in the confrontation with Moscow, did not consider it possible that the Commonwealth as a country, although at a higher civilizational level (according to its historiosophy), but Catholic, became the unifier of Slavism.

8. The historical role and place of Poland in the history of Russia was defined in Russian historiography as the most important political, military, as well as civilizational rival, and at the same time as the center of transmission of Western influence. Supporting and developing the theses of modern historiography on the fundamental ideas of Russian historical polonistics of the studied period, the author of the dissertation puts forward the position on the proximity of evaluative positions regarding historical polonistics in the basic concepts of liberal-Western and conservative Slavophile historiography. The provision on the refusal of liberal historiography from the 80s of the nineteenth century on its fundamental foundations is not confirmed by historiographic material. Russian historical polonistics, on the whole, depended on conservative and Slavophil ideas, most often of an anti-Western sense. 

 Polish issues were so specific that not only conservative, but also liberal historians (including well-known polonophiles) in relation to Polish subjects were characterized by the Russian great-power attitude. Russian liberal historiography of the Western orientation deliberately refused the possibility of a separate study and assessments of a number of the most politicized problems in the history of Poland: a general assessment of the nature of the Polish-Russian confrontation, primarily in the context of the struggle for West Russian lands. On the issue of Western Russian lands (Belarusian and Ukrainian), Russian historiography proceeded from the provision on the exclusive prerogative of Moscow Orthodox influence on these lands. The idea of the possibility of a federal entry of these lands into the Commonwealth or their independent existence was strongly rejected.

 The traditions that developed during the period under review in covering the history of Poland and Russian-Polish relations affected to a certain extent the development of Soviet polonistics and still have some influence on the development of historical polonistics in Russia and Belarus.

 

Personal contribution of a degree applicant

The dissertation research is completed and is an independent author’s research. In the course of the work, factual material that was not previously comprehensively reviewed by researchers was identified, summarized, and analyzed. In the course of the work, a search, systematization and source study of a large amount of factual material that had not previously been generalized by researchers was carried out. Available materials made it possible to determine the place and role of Polish history in the most famous historiosophical concepts of Russian historical science of the period under study and in Russian historical polonistics as a whole. All provisions and conclusions formulated in the thesis belong to the author.

Some contributors to the development of research problems were the authors of the publications: A.N. Nechukhrin presented the theoretical and methodological positions of N.I. Kareeva in relation to historical polonistics; V.A. Hilyuta considered some aspects of the problems of the history of West Russian lands in the work of N.M. Karamzin; D.V. Sheikin investigated the problems of the history of the reformation in the Western Russian lands in the work of S. M. Solovyov; G.V. Vasyuk studied the approaches of Polish historiography at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries to the problems of the Church Union of Brest; S.A. Yanushkevich examined the problems of relations between Belarusians and Poles in the territory of modern Belarus in the assessment of Polish historiography of the 19th - early 20th centuries.

Testing the dissertation and information on the use of its results

The main provisions of the dissertation were tested at 28 conferences at the international and republican levels: “Gistarynaya Navuka and Gistarynaya Adukatsy ў Republic of Belarus. New Cancer and Padykhody ”(Minsk, 1995);

“Gistarynaya memory of the people ў Vyalikag of the Principality of Lithuania and Belarus. XIII-XX centuries " (Grodna, 1996);

“Belarus and palyaki: the melon of the people культур cultures. X – XX centuries " (Grodna, 1999);

“Stefan Batoriy ў gistarychnai memory of the people ў Uhodhodnyay Europe” (Grodna, 2003);

“Shlyakh uzaimnaststi” (Grodna, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014);

“Khrysianism ў the old forest of the Belarusian people” (Grodna, 2008, 2009);

“The state and development of methodological research in the historical science of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation” (Grodno, 2008);

“Gistaryagrafiya gistoryi Belarusi, new and most recent gistory_ krain Europe and ZSHA” (Minsk, 2008);

"Culture, science, education in the modern world": int. scientific conf. (Grodno, 2009, 2011);

"The history of Poland in the historiographic tradition of the nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries." (Grodna, 2009);

"Belarusian political science: diversity in unity." V int. scientific-practical conf. (Grodno, 2012);

“A paradigm shift in the historiography of world history in the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation” (Grodno, 2015), etc.

The results of the dissertation research are embedded in the educational process in the educational institution “Grodno State University named after Yanki Kupala ”, used for excursion and stock activities in the Criminal Code“ Grodno State Historical and Archaeological Museum ”.

Publishing the dissertation results

The main results of the dissertation were published in 70 scientific papers, of which: 2 monographs, one of which (22.32 copyright pages) and 28 articles in scientific publications (19.5 copyright pages) correspond to clause 18 of the Regulation on awarding scientific degrees and conferring academic ranks in the Republic of Belarus, including 7 articles in foreign scientific journals; 18 articles in other scientific journals, 21 articles in collections of materials of scientific conferences, 1 thesis.

The structure and scope of the dissertation

The dissertation consists of introduction, general characteristics of the work, 7 chapters, conclusion, bibliography and application. The total volume of the dissertation is 338 pages, including 1 appendix occupies 8 pages. The bibliographic list contains 1471 titles (on 100 pages), including the student’s own publications of the academic degree.  

 MAIN CONTENT

Chapter 1 “Historiography, sources and methodology of historical research” discusses the historiography and source base of the subject of research, the main methodological approaches to the subject of research. Section 1.1 “Historiography” explores general assessments of historical polonistics in the studied historiosophical concepts of Russian science and Russian historical polonistics as a whole. The first attempts at a general description of Russian historical polonistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were made by researchers of the studied period(...) https://www.academia.edu/43076838/Kruczkowski_Tadeusz_HISTORY_OF_POLAND_IN_CONCEPTS_RUSSIAN_HISTORIOGRAPHY_XIX_-_THE_BEGINNING_OF_THE_XX_CENTURY_Historia_Polski_w_syntezach_historiografii_rosyjskiej_XIX_-_początek_XX_wieku

 

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